You can add these CSS blocks to your Thesis -> Custom CSS screen

CSS

1. Change background color behind logo area

.site-header {background: #000;}

2. Change background color behind top nav area and menu text color

.nav-primary {background: #000; border-bottom: 1px solid #fff;}
.nav-primary a {color: #fff;}
.site-footer, .thesis-nav-menu li li a, .thesis-nav-menu li li a:link, .thesis-nav-menu li li a:visited {color: #fff;}

3. Change background color behind footer widget area

.footer-widgets {background: #000;}
.footer-widgets a, .footer-widgets .widget_categories li a, .footer-widgets p, .footer-widgets span {color: #fff;}

4. Change background color behind footer copyright area

.site-footer {background: #000;}

5. Change link colors in content, add underline if desired

.post_content a {
    color: #000;
    text-decoration: underline;
}

6. Change width sizes of columns

.content-sidebar .content, .sidebar-content .content {width: 65.2778%;}
.entry {padding: 3rem 4rem;}
.sidebar-primary  {width: 30.5556%}